A promising class of carbon-based nanostructured materials, varied from empty caged fullerenes and endohedral metallofullerenes to carbon nanotubes and nanohorns, has led to an explosion of research associated with nanotechnology. The great potentiality of these materials for nanotechnology associated applications has been widely recognized due to their exclusive structures and novel properties. In the "Handbook of Carbon Nanomaterials: Science and Applications", contributions by experts in diverse fields of chemistry, physics, materials science and medicine provide a comprehensive survey of the current-state-of-knowledge of this constantly expanding subject. The book starts out with the nomenclature and modelling of carbon nanomaterials, then presenting a variety of examples on surfaces and thin films of fullerenes as well as giving an insight on the morphology and structure of carbon nanotubes and the characterization of peapod materials with the aid of transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently electro-optical properties and self-assembly and enrichment in carbon nanotubes, followed by strategies for the chemical functionalization of carbon nanohorns and endohedral metallofullerenes are presented to the reader. Finally, applications of endohedral metallofullerenes in quantum computing and of functionalized carbon nanotubes in medicine, conclude this fascinating overview of the field.