This book provides theoretical and methodological advances in specification and estimation of spatial econometric models, state-of-the-art information on the development of tools and software, and various applications. It introduces new tests and estimators for spatial regression models, including discrete choice and simultaneous equation models. The performance of techniques is demonstrated through simulation results and a wide array of applications related to economic growth, international trade, knowledge externalities, population-employment dynamics, urban crime, land use, and environmental issues. Newly developed software and programming tools are introduced. World-renowned experts in spatial statistics and spatial econometrics present the cutting edge of this field of research. The volume is relevant for academics with a theoretical interest in spatial statistics and econometrics and for practitioners looking for modern, up-to-date techniques to analyse spatial data.