In The Twenty-Third Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, leading US and international researchers from academia, industry, and government present state-of-the-art research on how biotechnology is being used to produce economically competitive fuels and chemicals. The articles range from a discussion of advances in biomass production and processing, to commercialization of bio-based products. Additional topics include enzyme and microbial biocatalysts, bioprocessing research and development, the pros and cons of mixing oil and ethanol, and emerging biorefinery opportunities. The field continues to expand, and the ideas and techniques described will play important roles in developing new biological processes for producing fuels and chemicals on a large scale, and for reducing pollution and waste disposal problems, and their adverse impacts on global climate change. Cutting-edge and authoritative, The Twenty-Third Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals provides an excellent overview of current research and development in the production of commodity fuels and chemicals via biological transformation.