Recent developments in atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been accomplished through various technical and instrumental innovations, including high-resolution and recognition imaging technology under physiological conditions, fast-scanning AFM, and general methods for cantilever modification and force measurement. All these techniques are now highly powerful not only in material sciences but also in basic biological sciences. There are many nanotechnology books that focus on materials, instruments, and applications in engineering and medicine, but only a few of them are directed toward basic biological sciences. This book tries to bridge this gap. Edited by a prominent researcher, this volume provides an overview of modern AFM technologies: the basic AFM protocols in Part I, newly developed technologies in Part II, and the most recent applications of AFM technologies in biological sciences in Parts III and IV. The chapters are contributed by some of the leading scientists in the field of nanobiology.