This book provides an overview of biobased surfactants currently under development. The first chapter provides an overview of biobased surfactant research and development in the industrial sector, including synthesis, applications, and current trends and directions in the field. Several chapters describe the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactants, natural amphiphiles synthesized by microorganisms, including their synthesis and applications. An additional focus area is on the application of biobased surfactants as lung surfactants.Many chapters involve the chemical and enzymatic synthesis and applications of biobased surfactants consisting of polyols derived from nature, particularly, mono- and di-saccharides and amino acids. The employment of enzymes as catalysts to direct the synthesis of biobased surfactants is particularly attractive due the reduction of solvent and energy use during the surfactants' manufacture, and the reduction of purification costs and formation of impurities and by-products.