The field of biomaterials has seen an exponential growth over the last few years leading to new strategies and frontiers in the biomedical arena. This growth has been catalyzed by the need to accelerate the discovery and translation of emerging technologies in a number of areas such as tissue engineering where the delivery of bioactive agents can help to treat, repair or restore function of damaged tissues. The emergence of these new biomaterial based technologies has resulted from the convergence of principles from various disciplines such as materials science, bioengineering, molecular biology, biochemistry and nanotechnology. Motivations to improve health and lower long-term treatment costs to consumers and insurers has fueled continuous innovation towards developing novel polymeric compositions which can be used to manufacture medical devices with markedly lower risk of failure and adverse immune reactions. Polymers represent the most versatile class of biomaterials, being extensively applied in biomedical applications ranging from surgical and ocular devices, implants and supporting materials, drug delivery systems and drug device combinations, biosensors and other diagnostic assays, to tissue adhesives and tissue engineered constructs. This versatility results from the fact that polymers can be prepared in different compositions with a wide variety of structures and appropriate physicochemical, interfacial and biomimetic properties to meet specific end applications. This book presents the latest findings of the leading researchers in the field of polymeric biomaterials. It consists of 13 chapters which provide examples and reviews of recent developments in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of polymeric biomaterials.