In recent decades nanotechnology has developed into a highly multidisciplinary topic, drawing from a number of fields such as physics, materials science, biomedicine, and different engineering disciplines. The success of nanoscience- and nanotechnology-related research and products is connected with the technological exploitation of size effects in structures and materials and is, therefore, related to its impact on the society of the future. This most recent trend has been taken up here and represents the main focus of this book applied to carbon-based materials, including nanocrystalline diamond, aerogels, and carbon nanotubes. The book compiles and details cutting-edge research, and several applications are described within the field of energy, microelectronics, and biomedicine. Beyond that, a perspective is given including a diversity of industrial applications and market opportunities for C-based nanoscale materials and devices in the future.