Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential dietary compound with myriad metabolic and regulatory functions. Deficiency can result in vision problems, compromised immune responses, and a host of other medical issues. More than 600 carotenoids have been identified in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, and around 50 carotenoids-including beta-carotene-can be converted into vitamin A. Carotenoids and Vitamin A in Translational Medicine reviews the medical use of carotenoids and vitamin A in cancer; diseases of the skin, eye, ear, and lung; and inflammatory bowel and metabolic diseases. It also discusses the analytics of carotenoids and the supply of carotenoids and vitamin A in developing countries. Serving a broad community of researchers and practitioners conducting basic and clinical analysis on carotenoids and vitamin A for medical purposes, the book evaluates basic research, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials in the field. It updates information on the worldwide problem of vitamin A deficiency and discusses extensively the pros and cons of carotenoid supplementation in cancer. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the efforts made in the field of carotenoid research with respect to translational medicine and present the future outlook on carotenoids as new therapeutic agents. It is the editors' intent through the contributions in this volume to expand this important discussion on therapeutic approaches using carotenoids and retinoids. In doing so, they hope to enhance the quality of research which brings safe, effective, and clinically proven medicines to patients.