The Middle East has more than 60 per cent of the world's proven conventional oil reserves and 40 per cent of its proven natural gas reserves. The recent rise in global demand for energy and the resulting spike in energy prices have illustrated just how important Middle Eastern energy exports will be in the future. Policy makers, strategic planners, and energy experts cannot always control energy risks nor can they ignore such uncertainties, but they can enhance their understanding of energy developments in the most important energy-producing region in the world. This book outlines the current facts that shape the ability of Middle Eastern producers to supply energy exports and explores the possible future causes both of major interruptions in supply and of failures to maintain and expand export capacity. It does not predict a major energy crisis, but it does describe a range of factors that could produce one. This book analyses the plans of each country in the region, compares those plans with the forecasting models of international organisations, and studies each country's prospects for stability. The book also analyses how importing countries such as the US, Europe, China, and India are dealing with the changing nature of global dependence upon Middle East oil. Giving the most comprehensive data on current energy resources, production capacities estimates, import dependence, and national plans and strategies, the authors analyse current energy modelling and show how the lack of supply-driven models has had a negative impact on the understanding of policy makers and strategic thinkers. The two-volume set concludes its analysis with possible future scenarios for the Middle East from a strategic, economic, and demographic point of view and the impact of each scenario on future energy developments.