This Companion provides an authoritative and up-to-date overview of Roman Republican history as it is currently practiced. Highlights recent developments, including archaeological discoveries, fresh approaches to textual sources, and the opening up of new areas of historical study. Retains the drama of the Republic's rise and fall. Emphasizes not just the evidence of texts and physical remains, but also the models and assumptions that scholars bring to these artefacts. Looks at the role played by the physical geography and environment of Italy. Offers a compact but detailed narrative of military and political developments from the birth of the Roman Republic through to the death of Julius Caesar. Discusses current controversies in the field.