The era of seemingly unlimited growth in processor performance is over: single chip architectures can no longer overcome the performance limitations imposed by the power they consume and the heat they generate. Today, Intel and other semiconductor firms are abandoning the single fast processor model in favor of multi-core microprocessors-chips that combine two or more processors in a single package. In the fourth edition of "Computer Architecture", the authors focus on this historic shift, increasing their coverage of multiprocessors and exploring the most effective ways of achieving parallelism as the key to unlocking the power of multiple processor architectures. Additionally, the new edition has expanded and updated coverage of design topics beyond processor performance, including power, reliability, availability, and dependability. It offers increased coverage on achieving parallelism with multiprocessors. This book provides case studies of latest technology from industry including the Sun Niagara Multiprocessor, AMD Opteron, and Pentium 4. Three review appendices, included in the printed volume, review the basic and intermediate principles the main text relies upon. Eight reference appendices, collected on the CD, cover a range of topics including specific architectures, embedded systems, application specific processors - some guest authored by subject experts.