Leading authorities in the field review our current knowledge of critical behavior in brain functioning, both experimental and theoretical. Divided into four parts, the book begins by summarizing the experimental evidence that supports the idea of brain dynamics in the context of self-organized criticality, presenting recent groundbreaking discoveries. The second section introduces recent breakthroughs in modeling of neuronal circuits to establish self-organized criticality. The third part is devoted to the advantage of critical dynamics with respect to brain function, reflecting the importance of this particular question for neuroscience. The volume is rounded off by a section with contributions on inspiration and perspectives. A milestone publication, defining upcoming directions of research in this new field, and all set to become the primary source of information.