Due to the attractiveness of butterflies, and their usefulness as model systems for biological questions, there has been a considerable amount of material written on butterfly biology, largely in Europe. This book synthesizes all relevant and recent knowledge in the field, which is a must for those making use of this taxonomic group as a model system. It is divided into five major parts which deal with habitat use, population ecology and genetics, evolutionary ecology, distribution and phylogeny, and global change and conservation. There are growing numbers of scientific projects and networks in Europe in which the use of butterflies as tools and targets for conservation is central, and application of knowledge is closely related to European cultural landscapes. However, the chapters can also be applied to a wide geographic scope. Written by an international team of experts, this timely book is suitable for students, researchers and enthusiasts.