The thirst for energy and the need to manage environmental impacts arising from the carbon economy are urgent issues facing this and future generations. The environment and security nexus provide an essential perspective for meeting energy and other challenges to security arising from climate change, conflicts, and economic transition. As Norman Myers succinctly pointed out, wars have already been fought over water and energy; and deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, over-fishing, and a host of other environmental problems are linked with conflict everywhere. Yet the capacity of humans to reach across boundaries and cooperate on the environment also gives us hope that solutions to environment and security problems can be found. This volume presents the outcome of a unique meeting that took place in November 2007 in the Hungarian Parliament, when scientists from NATO member and partner countries met with members of parliament from two committees of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly.Penetrating contributions in this volume address an array of issues integral to energy, the environment and security, including environmental refugees, the viability of nuclear power, the biofuels misstep, and geopolitical aspects of global energy security, among others - issues that will be with us for many years to come.