This book examines an issue which could not be more topical: the economic, social, and environmental implications of concerted attempts to diversify energy sources away from fossil fuels. Bringing together leading academics and researchers from the UK, the USA, and, Latin America, these chapters focus on the contrasting experiences of two major economies; one developed and the other, a rapidly expanding emerging market. A key area of concern surrounds the causes and consequence of the contrasting routes to biofuel production represented by sugar cane (in Brazil) and corn (in the US).The book also places the recent biofuels drive in perspective by discussing the broader energy policy context. Regard here is paid to attempts to substitute foreign with domestically-produced fossil fuels. In focusing on the experiences of two of the world's most important energy producers and consumers, interesting policy lessons emerge. It is argued that these have implications for other economies pondering a switch to renewable energy sources.