This volume is a collection of papers produced within the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) on the monitoring and control of environmental contamination. The volume represents a contribution of the PNRA to the study of planetary contamination and to the understanding of the processes of global change. The research focuses on the measurement and analysis of trace elements and organic micropollutants in the following matrices: snow/firn, seawater, soils, sediments, suspended particulate matter, pack ice, atmosphere, and biota. The results presented extend beyond the development of specific analytical methodologies, to explicitly tackle significant environmental issues concerning global changes. Particularly relevant are the results concerning time changes of CFCs in the troposphere and lead concentration in Antarctic snow in Victoria Land, the presence of organic micropollutants in various Antarctica matrices, and the seasonal evolution of trace elements and organics in seawater.