This work contains over 450 color images, plus never before published images provided by the George Eastman House collection, as well as images from Ansel Adams, Howard Schatz, and Jerry Uelsmann to name just a few. The role and value of the picture cannot be matched for accuracy or impact. This comprehensive treatise, featuring the history and historical processes of photography, contemporary applications, and the new and evolving digital technologies, will provide the most accurate technical synopsis of the current, as well as early worlds of photography ever compiled. This Encyclopedia, produced by a team of world renown practicing experts, shares in highly detailed descriptions, the core concepts and facts relative to anything photographic. This Fourth edition of the "Focal Encyclopedia" serves as the definitive reference for students and practitioners of photography worldwide, expanding on the award winning 3rd edition. In addition to Michael Peres (Editor in Chief), the editors are: Franziska Frey (Digital Photography), J.Tomas Lopez (Contemporary Issues), David Malin (Photography in Science), Mark Osterman (Process Historian), Grant Romer (History and the Evolution of Photography), Nancy M. Stuart (Major Themes and Photographers of the 20th Century), and Scott Williams (Photographic Materials and Process Essentials). It includes a searchable CD-ROM containing full contents of the book. It is presented in full color throughout and is highly illustrated. It has world wide industry leaders contributing to it.