This book arises from the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) titled 'Functionalized Nanoscale Materials, Devices, and Systems for chem.-bio Sensors, Photonics, and Energy Generation and Storage' held in Sinaia, Romania in June 2007. It comprises a variety of invited contributions by highly experienced educators, scientists, and industrialists, and is structured to cover important aspects of the field, from underlying principles, synthesis routes, characterizations, applications, and detailed considerations of commercial viability. In addition, the book consists of a selection of contributed articles describing various aspects of their current research and development activities. Several related topics ranging from nanomaterial in chemical-biological sensors, to energy storage and generation devices, and to environmental protection and pollution remediation.Several top-down (attrition) and bottoms-up (self-assembly) approaches to prepare nanomaterials are discussed. In addition, several synthesis routes, viz. synthesis using new laser systems generating ultra-short (ns, ps, fs, and very recently, as pulses) with very high quality beams that allow very accurate focusing, provide unique tools for handling and processing nanomaterials in the form of nanocoatings, nanopowders, nanotubes, and other advanced structures are also included in the book. It will be of considerable interest and value to those already pursuing or considering careers in the field of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology, in general. It also serves as a valuable source of information for those interested in related aspects of the field, such as science and technology of thin film materials and devices.