Endourology has developed significantly in recent years as a result of rapid change in surgical techniques and instruments. This eighth volume in the series "Recent Advances in Endourology" brings together the latest clinical findings regarding various endourological treatment modalities and innovative materials. In the past 30 years, transurethral resection of prostate, bladder, and ureteral tumors has been dramatically refined. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy has emerged as a nonsurgical option for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction. Percutaneous surgery has changed significantly with the miniaturization of the endoscope, while the needle ablation technique, which decreases pain and shortens hospital stays, has become the treatment of choice for small renal cell tumors. In this book, world-recognized experts outline their techniques clearly and concisely to provide an updated review of state-of-the-art endourological techniques.