For many centuries, Muslim religious educational institutions (known as the "dini madaris" have held an important position among educational institutions in the Indian subcontinent. However, after the 9/11 attacks in the US and the consequent declaration of the global 'war on terrorism', allegations against these institutions-about their being breeding grounds for Islamic fundamentalists and terrorists-have dominated India's media. Is there a link between "madaris "and violence, anti-national activities, or terrorism? How transparent are these alternative educational networks in terms of funding, spread and patronage? What are the political implications of their educational system? Providing a variety of perspectives, Islamic Education, Diversity and National Identity: Dini Madaris in India Post 9/11 addresses a number of important questions from various angles. The 12 original essays of this volume discuss the phenomenon of "dini madaris "from a historical perspective, regional perspective, and examine current developments while drawing insights mainly from recently conducted fieldwork. The contributors discuss crucial issues like gender and the role of the media. The volume concludes that "dini madaris," contrary to their public image, are not essentially opposed to change, even though the framework for change appears to be limited. Bringing together Indian, British and German scholars, and based on original and current research, this volume will be of considerable interest to those in the fields of education, social anthropology, Islamic studies, South Asian studies, politics, history, as well as to the general reader.