Impedance Spectroscopy is a powerful measurement method used in many application fields such as electrochemistry, material science, biology and medicine, semiconductor industry and sensors. Using the complex impedance at various frequencies increases the informational basis that can be gained during a measurement. It helps to separate different effects that contribute to a measurement and, together with advanced mathematical methods, non-accessible quantities can be calculated. This book is the fourth in the series Lecture Notes on Impedance Spectroscopy (LNIS). The series covers new advances in the field of impedance spectroscopy including fundamentals, methods and applications. It releases scientific contributions from the International Workshop on Impedance Spectroscopy (IWIS) as extended chapters including detailed information about recent scientific research results. This book is of interest to graduated students, engineers, researchers and specialists dealing with impedance spectroscopy. It includes fundamentals of impedance spectroscopy as well as specific theoretical and practical aspects from many applications in various fields.