Molecular techniques are being harnessed for the detection of organisms in a wide range of circumstances. Global trade has introduced new pests of crops and plants; simultaneously, there is universal concern from disease outbreaks such as BSE, Foot and Mouth and the bird-flu virus. Molecular diagnostic applications for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and genetically modified organisms in food are also becoming increasingly important. This book provides a critical assessment of the various molecular methods in medical and veterinary science, forensics, biodefense, plant science, food safety and quarantine sciences. Aimed at a wide range of end-users encompassing postgraduates, postdoctoral research scientists, established researchers and specialist scientists, the authors describe and evaluate molecular techniques and applications in this increasingly important area. Topics include the molecular methods for the direct detection of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, MRSA and other important bacterial infections, medical viruses, medical parasites, dental plaque bacteria and haematological malignancies. Also covered is the molecular recognition and detection of catastrophic bio-threat agents as a consequence of global terrorism.