This book presents cutting edge research on the basic neurobiology of parental behavior as it relates to behavioral disorders, including postpartum depression, anxiety, and inadequate parental bonding to infants. Internationally recognized basic and clinical researchers present new research findings in humans and animals that elucidate the roles of the brain, physiological state, genes and environment in maternal and paternal care. By bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, new understandings of how the biology of the brain and the reproductive state of the parent impact their mental health and the successful rearing of young emerge.This book: presents the neural network of motherhood based on fundamental and functional MRI studies of parental care - from rodents to humans; discusses the role of gene-environment interactions in parenting; offers parenting strategies and priorities in raising young; discusses maternal defense - the neurobiology of maternal protection; examines the significance and underlying causes of postpartum depression; and, discusses parenting and anxiety neurobiological basis for reductions during the postpartum period.It also includes the neurobiology of fatherhood a fresh evolutionary and biological perspective on paternal behavior. This book presents information on maternal neuroplasticity - how reproductive history changes the maternal brain. It translates research internationally renowned researchers' insights into common factors that regulate mammalian parenting.