Significant progress in engineering has allowed the production of devices that can optically detect, differentiate and treat surface or near-surface cancers. The ability to differentiate cancerous from non-cancerous tissue in vitro using light represents a potentially significant advance in patient care, eliminating needless repeat procedures. With the help of advanced optical technologies, clinicians are able to identify cancers earlier, determine surgical margins at the time of surgery, and monitor treatment results without using expensive and insensitive imaging. This volume describes the state-of-the-art optical detection technologies in varying stages of cancer development. Written by an international panel of basic researchers, engineers and clinicians, the book is designed to give an up-to-date overview of the most recent advances for researchers and medical professionals who are interested in the biophotonic detection of cancer.