This book explores the policy objectives underlying the gift of this Order, to sixty men, on January 1 1403. Drawing primarily on Philip's household accounts, it undertakes complementary iconographical and prosopographical analyses (of the Order insignia's form, materials, design and motto, and of distinguishing common features among its recipients), refined by reference to his policy concerns around the occasion of its bestowal, to test seven hypotheses. The evidence from the analyses enables six of these (that it was purely decorative; a courtly conceit; crusade-related; a military chivalric order; a livery badge; or a military alliance) progressively to be discarded, pointing strongly to the seventh, that the Order was a specific policy alliance, designed in fashionable form, to obscure its politically sensitive purpose. The nature of that purpose then permits a revision of Philip's role in history, particularly in relation to the creation of an independent Burgundian state, and the use of a co-ordinated propaganda campaign of slogan, badge, and supporting literature, to legitimise and popularise his plans. The analytical approach also offers insights into the significance of decorative, material gift-giving; the identification of networks; Christine de Pisan's earlier political writings, and the origins of the Order of the Golden Fleece.