Recent years have seen considerable research activity at the interface of mathematics and fluid mechanics, particularly partial differential equations. The 2007 workshop at the University of Warwick was organized to consolidate, survey and further advance the subject. This volume is an outgrowth of that workshop. It consists of a number of reviews and a selection of more traditional research articles. The result is an accessible summary of a wide range of active research topics written by leaders in their field, together with some exciting new results. The book serves as both a helpful overview for graduate students new to the area and a useful resource for more established researchers.