This volume seeks to mark a departure in criminal justice history. The seven chapter essays, together with the reviews of 12 major works in the area, establish the series as a forum for exploring areas of research in the criminal justice area in its historical, criminological, legal and social aspects. Common themes and issues that emerge from the study of policing and warring from the perspectives of both the nation state and the local community are explored. Elaine Reynolds and Barry Godrey examine the daily work of nightwatchmen, and private and public police in bringing order to the streets in times of peace and war. Mark Clapson and Clive Emsley examine the problem of the policeman's image in the culture of his community, and Richard Ireland illustrates how scientific advances in crime detection brought the stereotyping of criminals rather than their arrest and conviction. Michael Broers and David Smith reveal the dramatic impact that world war brought to the problem of policing occupied territory, while Simon Kitson demonstrates the dangers that can occur when the civilian police are used to invigilate racist policies of a totalitarian regime. The resource is designed to be of use to scholars, students and other researchers involved with legal, political and military history, criminal justice studies, sociology and criminology, and criminal law.