What has really happened in Poland since the election of 2005? After such spectacular events as the practice of lustration and the questioning of solidarity with the European Union, one has to ask: what is the nature of this newly emerging society? As with many of the recent developments in former communist countries that seem to be mysterious and irrational, the situation and ensuing problems are complex and the answers neither trivial nor easy. This book, by the distinguished Polish philosopher, addresses these complexities through the role of the communist past in post-communist Poland. It describes the events that led to the collapse of the Solidarity program and the growing influence of the nationalistic and religious parties in the government. The author investigates the nature of social and political temporality and develops a theoretical framework that allows him to apply his conclusions not only to Poland but also to other formerly communist countries. Leszek Koczanowicz is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Cultural Studies Department at University of Lower Silesia (DSW) in Wroclaw.His previous affiliations include Wroclaw University (1977-1997), Opole University (1997-2002), SUNY/Buffalo (1998-1999 and 2000-2001), and Columbia University (2004-2005) where he was Distinguished Professor at the School of International and Public Affairs.He is an author and editor of six books and numerous articles in Polish and English.