This volume addresses important issues in international economics with contributions from an array of prominent researchers -- a manifestation of Hiroshi Ohta's cross-border research network and his passionate dedication to economics. Contributions range from studies on positive and normative trade theory, innovation in international trade and interactions between domestic and foreign firms and industries,to studies of a more empirical nature. The empirical contributions focus on preferential trading arrangements, global imbalances and exchange rates,as well asproviding an in-depth analysis of the Japanese economy. The featured topics are explored from both positive and normative perspectives. Positive analysis describes how the economy functions, dealing primarily with what 'is'. Normative analysis is concerned with what 'should be'.This combined approach enables the formation of a base from which credible policy evaluation can take place.