Strong atmosphere-hydrology-biosphere feedbacks including human activity affect the rate and sign of changes in the Earth's system and have impacts on socioeconomic relationships. These processes are related to atmospheric circulation, climate and land use changes. Satellite-based and in situ monitoring systems have greatly increased our understanding of variations and changes occurring in the regional climate, atmospheric regime, land cover and water circulation. Coupled numerical models are invoked to describe features, which cannot be caught by observation systems or to predict a future state. This book summarizes the state-of-the-art researches on land cover, atmosphere and water resources of the Eastern Europe region, sets up priorities of major researches in these fields, outlines deficiencies in data and their processing, and develops recommendations for further research directions. Selected papers of the Non-Boreal Eastern Europe NEESPI meeting cover five topics: observational issues in the non-boreal Eastern Europe; regional climate changes; air pollution aspects; land cover and land use changes; and, changes in the Black Sea and its coastal zone.