This selection of papers explores the challenges faced by the science establishments in the new security environment across a range of NATO countries, and examines possible solutions by looking in closer detail at some national case studies. It sets out the importance of the NATO Security Through Science programme in the new security environment. It discusses the new security threat in its historical context and looks at the differing perspectives of industry, academia and the military, to the current security environment. Other topics discussed: the situation in three different geographical locations - former Soviet Union, Mediterranean Dialogue, western European countries with the US; the issue of breaking down barriers among the scientific communities; between government and industry; amongst ministries, between international agencies and academics; between policy makers and industry. This publication also studies models that offered potential solutions or some guidance to other countries with similar issues, using case studies for the UK, Turkey and Scandinavia.