Empowering people, reducing poverty, improving livelihoods and promoting economic growth, while at the ensuring sustainable ecosystems, requires local, appropriate and widely replicable solutions. In the search for these, poor sanitation and poor water supply are major drivers in cycles of disease, poverty and powerlessness which avoid people in developing nations to escape poverty. Sustainable water supply is not only a matter of groundwater and sanitation-technical solutions, but as much implies tackling major issues concerning hydro-social and public health components. The African continent, has lagged behind other regions in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in water supply and sanitation, and continues to be a much neglected water resource.This volume disseminates investigations and pointers towards achieving sustainable groundwater supplies in challenging local community environments across the African continent. The first part presents the search integrated water, sanitation, hygiene delivery and best implementation practice. The second part, through a variety of case studies, illustrates the current status and pitfalls that hydrogeologists experience and highlights the relevant challenges that especially Sub-Saharan Africa still faces in this battle. The chapters present the current situation, best practices, challenges identified and directions developed by the authors in their advancement towards comprehensive solutions. For anyone involved with the development of water supply and sanitation in developing countries.