Target Discovery and Validation: Reviews and Protocols, Volumes 1 and 2 review the most progressive and current methods for drug target discovery and validation. These volumes explore how recent improvement in understanding the molecular mechanisms of human pathology is impacting drug target discovery in the laboratory and in real therapeutics, specifically for cancers and autoimmune disorders. Volume 1 focuses on novel and innovative techniques, and presents the most up-to-date protocols available for maximizing the likelihood of achieving target-selective inhibition in vivo while minimizing side effects. The profound impact of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics on target discovery is explored, and specific attention is given to the role of transgenic and knockout animals in functional genomics and target validation. Cancer researchers will find tremendous value in the molecular classification of breast cancers and the review of protocols for tumor antigens and cancer vaccines. The methods and protocols collected here, all reviewed by leading scientists and clinicians, present the practical details necessary for translating the enormous discovery potential of the genome into real therapeutic products. Volume 2 collects all the practical details required for efficient translation of discovered targets into real pharmaceutical drugs. Specific targets in cancers and autoimmunity are described and the potential of using siRNA's, antisense oligonucleotides and RNA aptimers in patients is reviewed. This volume explores the tremendous impact of the application of genotyping and gene expression profiling on the future of healthcare, and presents cutting-edge protocols to aid in bringing agents against specific targets closer to application in the clinic. Collectively, these volumes provide a thorough review of the most cutting-edge methods available for each step in drug target identification, validation, and clinical application. For researchers, an understanding of available methods aids in the creation of innovative experiments in the laboratory, and the successful translation of target discovery to real therapeutics.