This book examines the contemporary nature of caste disparities in India by using a framework that integrates discussions on caste from other social science disciplines with those from within economics. It brings together quantitative evidence on different dimensions of caste disparities based on two large national-level data sets, in order to analyse the degree of change in the caste system over the last two decades. Offering evidence based on economic analysis, it questions commonly-held views and challenges traditional wisdom. The author uses the latest methods that allow researchers to gauge discrimination and shows how some of these methods have been used in the Indian context and what the quest has yielded. The book also discusses policy responses to disparities and discrimination by reviewing the existing quota system.