The new edition of this successful monograph has been both updated and broadened. Since the previous (second) edition was published in 2000, the structures of the bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes have been published, advancing our basic understanding of translation and mechanisms involving protein and RNA regulators. In addition, as the title indicates, this edition has a new focus on the role of translational control in human development and disease. This book, with 28 chapters written by experts in the field, is essential reading for anyone interested in the process of translation, its regulation, and how its failure can be the cause of disease. This is the 3rd edition of a volume which is an automatic update for professionals in the field.