This classic text by Ester Boserup was the first investigation ever undertaken into what happens to women in the process of economic and social growth throughout the developing world, thereby serving as an international benchmark. In the context of the ongoing struggle for women's rights, massive urbanization and international efforts to reduce poverty, this classic text continues to be a vital text for economists, sociologists, development workers, activists and all those who take an active interest in women's social and economic circumstances and problems throughout the world. A substantial new Introduction by Camilla Toulmin, Director of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), and Nazneen Kanji and Su Fei Tan, reflects on Boserup's legacy as a scholar and activist, and the continuing relevance of her work. This highlights the key issue of how the role of women in economic development has or has not changed over the past four decades in developing countries. Coverage includes: women and inequality; international and national migration; conflict; HIV and AIDS; markets and employment; urbanization; leadership; property rights and global processes (including the Millennium Development Goals and barriers to change).